16 Types / Kinds of Partners

The following are the major classification of the partners:

1. Active Partner (Managing or Working Partner)

A person who takes active part, in the affairs and management of the business is called active partner. He contributes his shares in the capital and is also liable to pay the obligations of firm.

2. Nominal Partner

He is not in reality a partner of firm but his name is used as if he is a member of the firm. He is not entitled in the profit or loss of the business but he is liable to all the acts of the firm. The person who has good prestige and status is given, the position of nominal partner.

3. Sub-Partner

The person who receives a share of profit from one of the regular partners is called the Sub-Partner. He is not liable to pay the debt is of the firm. He has no rights and privileges against the firm.

4. Silent Partner (Silent form managing point of view)

He is that kind of partner who does not participate in the affairs of the business but is known to outsiders as a partner of the firm. He is liable to pay the debts of the firm like other partner.

5. Secret Partner (Secret from public point of view)

He is active in the running life of the firm but public does not know him as partner of the firm. He pays his share in the capital and is liable to settle the creditors of the firm.

6. Sleeping Partner or Dormant Partner (Sleeping From Both Points of View i.e. public and managing)

A person who
(a) does not conduct the management of the firm personally
(b) is not known to the outsiders as a partner of the firm, is called sleeping partner. But he invests his amount in the business and is liable to clear the debts of the firm. He is also called dormant partner.

7. Minor Partner

There is no restriction to join the minor in the partnership by law. Although he may become partner but with the consent of all existing partners. In this case, he can be admitted to the profits of the firm only but not losses. He is not personally liable for the obligations of the firm. But minor has the right to inspect and copy .the accounts of the firm. Within six months of his attaining maturity, he has to give public notice whether he wants to remain partner or not. After his decision, he will deemed as full fledged partner.

8. Quasi Partner

A person who has retired from the running management life of the firm but he does not withdraw his capital from the business is know as quasi-partner. So his capital is considered as a loan and he receives interest at the rate varying with the profit. Really he is not a partner but he is a Deferred Creditor.

9. Senior Partner

A person who brings large portion of capital in the business is called senior partner. He has prominent position in the firm due to his experience, skill, energy, age and other abilities.

10. Junior Partner

He invests minor portion of capital in the business and so he has small share in the profits. He is junior to an other partner in the firm due to his age, experience and other factors.

11. Holding Out Partner (Estoppels partner)

A person who declares by word of mouth as partner of the firm is called holding out partner. In reality he is not a regular partner so he is not entitled to receive share of profit. Such persons are liable to those parties who have given credit on the faith of such representation.

12. Salaried Partner

An individual who does not bring anything i.e. amount or goods in the firm but has right to receive salary or share in the profit or both is named as salaried partner. He is known to the outside world as a partner and is liable for all the acts of the firm like other partners.

13. Incoming Partner

A person who is newly admitted to the firm with the consent of all the parties is called incoming partner. He is not liable for any act of the firm done before he became a partner unless he agrees;

14. Retired Partner (Outgoing Partner)

A person who goes out of a firm due to certain event or reason is known as retired or out going partner. In this situation the remaining partners continue to carry on the business. Retiring partner is liable for all the obligations and debts incurred before the retirement. But he will also be liable to third parties even for future transaction, if he does not give public notice of his retirement..

15. Partners in Profit Only

He is an individual who gets a share of the profits only without being liable for the losses. He does not participate in the management of the business. He will be liable to outsiders for all acts of the firm.

16. Limited Partner

A person who has not to pay any obligation more than the share he holds in the firm is called limited partner. He can not take part in the management of the firm. This kind of partner exists in limited partnership. But this type of organization is rare in our country.


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